World Regions in Global Context

Chapter One:

-Regional geography combines elements of both physical and human geography and is concerned with the way that unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes.

-Geographers apply the concept of region to large-sized territories (such as countries, provinces, and countries, or large sections of countries, such as the U.S. Midwest) that encompasses many places, all or most of which share a set of attributes that differ from the attributes of places that make up a different region.

-Regionalization is the geographer’s classification of individual places or areal units; it is the geographer’s equivalent of scientific classification.

-Formal regions are groups of areal units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features (such as religious adherence or household income).

-For this reason, geographers also recognize functional regions (sometimes referred to as nodal regions)-regions that are defined and classified by patterns of spatial interaction or spatial organization.

-World regions are extensive geographic divisions based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major clusters on humankind with broadly similar cultural attributes.

-States are independent political units with boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states.

-A nation is a group of people often sharing common elements of culture such as religion or language, a history, or a political identity.

-Supranational organizations are collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature and that diminishes, to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of the group interests of the membership.

-The assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its formal borders belongs to it historically and culturally is known as irredentism.

-Not to be confused with regionalism or irredentism is sectionalism, an extreme devotion to regional interests and customs.

-Globalization involves the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change.

-The investments and activities of a transnational corporation, or TNC, span international boundaries, with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several countries.

-Commodity chains are networks of labor and production processes that originate in the extraction or production of raw materials and end with the delivery and consumption of a finished commodity.

-Neoliberal policies are economic policies that are predicated on a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization, but also for political and social life.

-The demographic transition is a model of population change when high birth and death rates are replaced by low birth and death rates.

-However, neither the widespread consumption of U.S. and U.S. style products, nor the increasing familiarity of people around the world with global media and international brand names, adds up to the emergence of a single global culture (where culture is understood to be a shared set of meaning that are lived through the symbolic and material practices of everday life).

-Primary activities are those that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind.

-Secondary activities are those concerned with manufacturing or processing.

-Tertiary activities are those that involve the sale and exchange of goods and services.

-Quaternary activities deal with handling and processing knowledge and information.

-Gross domestic product (GDP) is an estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services produced by a country in a particular year.

-Gross national product (GNP) includes the net value of income from abroad-flows of profits or losses from overseas investments, for example.

-Spatial justice is the fairness of geographic variations in people’s levels of affluence and well-being, given people’s needs and their contributions to the production of wealth and social well-being.

-Gender refers to the social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences related to sex.

-Earth system science is an integrated approach to global patterns of geology, climate, and ecosystems and how they have changed over time and space, producing a physical geography that is dynamically shaped by both natural forces and human actions.

-The theory of plate tectonics explains how Earth’s crust is divided into large solid plates that move relative to each other and cause mountain-building, volcanic, and earthquake activity when they separate or meet.

-Plate tectonics builds on theories about continental drifts, the slow movement of the continents over long periods of time across Earth’s surface.

-The study of landforms in geography is called geomorphology.

-Whereas weather is the instantaneous or immediate state of the atmosphere (for example, a rainy or freezing day) at a particular time and place, climate is the typical conditions of the weather expected at a place often measure by long-term averages of temperature and precipitation and at different seasons (for example, a place with wet, cool winters and hot, dry summers).

-The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is the region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall.

-Atmospheric circulation and the associated patterns of world climates are the major influences on the global distribution of ecosystems-the complexes of living organisms and their environments in particular places.

-Geographers are interested in the spatial distribution of plants, animals and ecosystems known as biogeography.

-Some of the most interesting questions in studying ecosystems and biogeography are those related to biodiversity-the differences in the types and numbers of species in different regions of the world.

-Of greatest concern is the role that human activity is playing in causing global warming, an increase in world temperatures and change in climate associated with increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases resulting from human activities such as deforestation and fossil-fuel burning.

-Global warming is associated with the greenhouse effect, the trapping of heat within the atmosphere by water vapor and gases, such as carbon dioxide, resulting in the warming of the atmosphere and surface.

-A world-system is an independent system of countries linked by political and economic competition.

-Capitalism is a form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods by private ownership.

-Communism is a form of economic and social organization characterized by the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange.

The core regions of the world-system are those that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economics.

-Colonialism involves the establishment and maintenance of domination-including political, economic, social and cultural domination-by a state over a separate and alien society. This domination usually involves some colonization (that is, the physical settlement of people from the colonizing state) and always results in economic exploitation by the colonizing state.

-Peripheral regions are characterized by dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships, by inadequate or obsolete technologies, and by undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity.

-Semiperipheral regions are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by the core regions.

-Mercantilism, an economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, is based on the idea that government should control industry and trade.

-A division of labor is the separation of productive processes into individual operations, each performed by different works or groups of workers.

-When the separation of productive processes is based on gender, it is known as a gender division of labor.

-The spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group is known as a diaspora.

-The tern nation-state is an ideal form consisting of homogeneous group of people governed by their own state.

-Nationalism is the feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs.

-A commodity is anything that has a use value or that has some usefulness to someone.

-Leadership cycles are periods of international power established by individual states through economic, political, and military competition.

-Hegemony refers to domination over the world economy, exercised-through a combination of economic, military, financial, and cultural means-by one national state in a particular historical epoch.

-Imperialism is the extension of the power of a state through the direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories.

-Materials for which colonies held a comparative advantage, in that their productivity was higher than for other possible specializations.

-The classic institution of colonial agriculture was the plantation-an extensive, European-owned, operated, and financed enterprise where single crops were produced by local or imported labor for a world market.

-Neocolonialism refers to economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people.

-Development theory is the analysis of the social changes that affect the economic progress of individual countries.

-In short, modernization theory states that economic development occurs when investment rates enable higher levels of industrialization, thus raising labor productivity and increasing the GDP per capita levels.

-The World Bank is a development bank and the largest source of development assistance in the world.

-The International Monetary Fund (IMF) provides loans to governments throughout the world.

-Mostly associated with the IMF, structural adjustment policies require governments to cut budgets and liberalize trade in return for debt relief.

-A more benign relationship between nature and society has been proposed under the principle sustainable development, a term that is now widely used but vaguely defined.

-The new international division of labor involves the decentralization of manufacturing production from all of these core regions to some semiperipheral and peripheral countries.

Chapter Two:

-Watersheds are dividing ridges between drainage areas.

-There is a broad pattern to Europe’s physical environment variability, and it is based on four principal physiographic regions that are characterized by broad coherence of geology, relief, landforms, soils, and vegetation.

-There are cirques (deep, bowl-shaped basins on mountainsides, shaped by ice action), glaciated valleys, and fjords in Norway (some as deep as 3900 feet), countless lakes; lines of moraines that mark the ice sheet’s final recession; extensive deposits of sand and gravel from ancient glacial deltas, and vast expanses of peat bogs that lie on the granite shield that forms the physiographic foundation of the region.

-In the southern parts of the Northwestern Uplands region, conifers (mostly evergreen trees such as pine, spruce, and fir) are mixed with birches and other deciduous trees; further north, conifers become entirely dominant, and in the far north, toward the North Cape, the forest gives way to desolate treeless stretches of the tundra, with its gray lichens and dwarf willows and birches.

-The farmers in these mountain subregions depend on pastoralism, a system of farming and way of life based on keeping herds of grazing animals, eked out with a little produce grown on the valley floors.

-In the Mediterranean areas, successive conquerors, from the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians to the Ottoman Turks and Christian Crusaders, carved out huge estates, known as latifundia, on which they set peasants to work. Land that did not belong to these big estates was often subdivided by independent peasant farmers into very small, intensely cultivated lots, or minifundia, most of which are barely able to support a family.

-By about 1200 most of the best soils of western Europe had been cleared of forest and new settlements were increasingly forced into the more marginal areas of heavy clays or thin sandy soils on higher ground and heathlands (heath is open land with coarse soil and poor drainage).

-Polder landscape provided excellent, flat, fertile, and stone-free soil.

-Feudal systems were almost wholly agricultural, with 80 or 90 percent of the workforce engaged in farming and most of the rest occupied in basic craft work.

-A key factor in the rise of Europe as a major world region was the emergence of a system of merchant capitalism in the 15th century.

-The river basins of the Rhine, the Seine, and the Thames rapidly became focused on a thriving network of entrepot seaports (intermediary centers of trade and transshipment that transformed Europe.

Much of Europe’s forest cover was cleared, while remaining forests and woodlands suffered from the acid rain resulting from heavy doses of atmospheric pollution.

-The United States, whose leaders believed that poverty and economic chaos in western Europe would foster communism, embarked on a massive program of economic aid under the Marshall Plan.

-After World War II, the leaders of the Soviet Union felt compelled to establish a buffer zone between their homeland and the major Western powers in Europe.

-The economies evolved as something of a hybrid, in which state power was used by a bureaucratic class to create command economies in the pursuit of modernization and economic development.

-The geography of industrial development under state socialism, as in democratic capitalism, was heavily influenced by the uneven distribution of natural resources and by the economic logic of initial advantage, specialization, and agglomeration economies-the cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among functionally related activities.

-By the 18th century they also carried the idea of Modernity, the genesis of which was in the changing world geography of the Age of Discovery.

-In the 18th century a ferment of ideas culminated in the Enlightenment movement, which was based on the conviction that all of nature, as well as human beings and their societies, could be understood as a rational system.

-The repeated fragmentation and reorganization of ethnic groups into separate states within the region has given rise to the term balkanization in referring to any situation in which a larger territory is broken up into smaller units, and especially where territorial jealousies give rise to a degree of hostility.

-In the Balkans themselves, the geopolitical reorganizations of the 1990s have left significant enclaves, culturally distinct territories that are surrounded by the territory of a different cultural group, and exclaves, portions of a country or of a cultural group’s territory that lie outside its contiguous land area.

-In the 1990’s, Serbian nationalism led to attempts at ethnic cleansing.

-Xenophobia is a hate, or fear, of foreigners-in some countries.

-The development of European welfare states (institutions with the aim of distributing income and resources to the poorer members of society) has helped maintain households’ purchasing power during periods of recession and ensured at least a tolerable level of living for most groups at all times.

-Disinvestment means selling off assets such as factories and equipment .

-Deindustrialization involves a relative decline (an in extreme cases, an absolute decline) in industrial employment in core regions as firms scale back their activities in response to lower levels of profitability.

-Eastern European country reforms included the abolition of controls on prices and wages, the removal of restrictions on trade and investment, the creation of financial infrastructure to handle private investment, the creation of government fiscal systems to balance taxation and spending, and the privatization of state-owned industries and enterprises.

-The inner-city neighborhoods of London are now mostly obsolescent, and a good deal of original housing disappeared, replaced by municipal housing projects.

-Many of the gaps left by earlier speculative development in suburban Paris, along with much of the outer suburbs, are filled with grans ensembles of social housing.

-New industrial districts associated with small firms are often referred to as flexible production regions.

Chapter Three:

-Verkhoyansk’s long and intense winters mean that the subsoil is permanently frozen-a condition known as permafrost-in more than two-thirds of the Russian Federation.

-In late summer, the Chinese monsoon brings heavy rains to the southeastern corner of the far east.

-The term taiga originally referred to trackless or virgin forest, though it is now used to describe the entire zone of boreal (northern) coniferous forest (spruce, fir, and pines, for example).

-Today, serious environmental degradation affects all parts of the region, a legacy of soviet problems that in many ways have been intensified by the transition to market economies, in which goods and services are produced and distributed through free markets.

-In Turkmenistan, for example, more than half of the arable land is devoted to cotton monoculture, while Uzbekistan is the world’s fifth-largest producer of raw cotton and third-largest exporter of cotton.

-Salinization is caused when water evaporates from the surface of the land and leaves behind salts that is has drawn up from the subsoil.

-The Silk Road is a collective name given to a network of overland trade routes that connected China with Mediterranean Europe, facilitating the exchange of silk, species, and porcelain from the East and gold, precious stones, and Venetian glass from the West.

-The key organizational unit for egalitarian society was to be the mikrorayon, a planned development with a radius of 300 to 400 meters, accommodating 8000 to 12,000 people with a representative mix of the city’s socioeconomic and ethnic groups, ample green space, perimeter thoroughfares with public transportation, day care, schools, sports and recreation facilities, and health services.

-Perhaps the most striking result of organized industry by Soviet planners was the development of territorial production complexes, regional groupings of production facilities based on local resources that were suited to clusters of interdependent industries: petrochemical complexes, for example, or iron-and-steel complexes.

-The leadership of the Russian Federation has asserted that country’s claims to a special sphere of influence in what it calls the Near Abroad, the former components of the Soviet Union, particularly those countries that contain a large number of ethnic Russians.

-Civil society involves the presence of a network of voluntary organizations, business organizations, pressure groups, and cultural traditions that operated essential precondition for pluralist democracy-a society in which members of diverse groups continue to participate in their traditional cultures and special interests.

Chapter Four:

-The single most important climatic variable unifying the Middle East and North Africa is aridity, in that the climate lacks sufficient moisture to support trees or woody plants.

-Reforestation and afforestation-converting previously unforested land to forest by planting seeds or trees-programs are under way in several Middle East states.

-Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are the three world religions-belief systems that have adherents worldwide- and are related.

-A minisystem is a society with a single cultural base and a shared social system and economy.

-European occupation exposed the various subregions to continental ideas about democracy, and as a result nationalist movements erupted-groups of people, sharing common elements of culture such as language, religion, or history, who wished to determine their own political affairs.

Arab provinces as part of the spoils of war became mandates-areas generally administered by a European power, with a promise and preparation for self-government and future independence.

-As the mandate holder, Britain was obliged by treaty in 1917 to implement the provisions of the Balfour Declaration, named after British foreign secretary Arthur James Balfour, which committed Britain to the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.

-Islam is an Arabic term that means submission to God’s will. A Muslim is a member of the community of believers whose duty is obedience and submission to the will of God.

-A Muslim must fulfill five primary obligations, known as the five pillars of Islam: repeating the profession of the faith (There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God.); praying five times a day facing Mecca; giving alms, or charitable giving; fasting from sunup until sundown during the holy month of Ramadan; and making at least one pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca if financially and physically able.

-Perhaps one of the most widespread culture counterforces to globalization has been the rise of Islamism, which is more popularly, although incorrectly, known as Islamic fundamentalism.

-Another aspect of the Islamist movement is the concept of the jihad, a complex term derived from the Arabic root meaning to strive.

-Kinship is normally thought of as a relationship based on blood, marriage, or adoption.

-Generally speaking, a tribe is a form of social identity created by groups who share a common set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action.

-The veil-from the all-encompassing full body garment, known as a chador, to a simpler head covering-has become the means by which women are able to effectively operate in public and yet remain in their personal space.

-Nearly three-quarters of the labor force in the Gulf states are guest workers, brought in to work in all aspects of oil production, from exploration and well development to drilling, refining, and shipping.

-The official Jewish state of Israel is a mid-20th-century construction that has its roots in the emergence of Zionism, a late 19th-century movement in Europe.

-Sudan, Turkey, and Iran illustrate the recent emergence of a new refugee status category, that of internally displaced persons (IDPs), individuals who are uprooted within their own countries due to civil conflict or human rights violations, sometimes by their own governments.

-Petrodollars are revenues generated by the sale of oil.

Chapter Five:

-During December the southward shift of the ITCZ low pressure brings hot dry winds called the harmattan out of inland Africa.

-The savanna grassland vegetation is found in tropical climates with a pronounced dry season and periodic fires.

-The highlands of Ethiopia are considered one of the centers of domestication, producing coffee, millet, and an important local cereal called teff.

-Traditional peoples developed several strategies for adapting to low soil fertility, including shifting cultivation, which involves moving crops from one plot to another to preserve soil fertility. As in other regions of the tropical world, one form of shifting cultivation is slash and burn agriculture, used to clear patches of forest, shrubs, or grassland through burning and then take advantage of the ash to fertilize crops.

-A modification of shifting cultivation is bush fallow, by which crops are planted around a village and plots are left fallow for shorter periods than in the slash and burn system.

-One of the critical environmental concerns in the drier regions of Africa is the loss of soil and vegetation from land degradation. This has often been called desertification and occurs when human activities transform land surfaces through overgrazing, deforestation, surface land mining, and poor irrigation techniques (leading to salinization).

-The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 was a meeting convened by German chancellor Bismarck in 1884-85 to divide Africa among European colonial powers.

-Large-scale segregation was established in 1959 through the creation of ten homelands, a new version of tribal reserves.

-Geographer David Rain has documented more traditional and long-standing circular migrations that respond to seasonal availability of pasture, droughts, and wage employment.

-Gender differences in Africa demonstrate the process of the feminization of poverty, whereby more than two-thirds of all people who join the ranks of the poor are women.

-In the 1980s the gender and development (GAD) approach was promoted as better linking women’s productive and reproductive roles and trying to understand the gender-related differences and barriers to better lives of both men and women.

-Another trend in development thinking in Africa is the promotion of microfinance programs, which provide credit and saving to the self-employed poor, including those in the informal sector, who cannot borrow money from commercial banks.

-Projects seem to be most successful in communities that have high levels of social capital-networks and relationships that encourage trust, reciprocity, and cooperation that share and expand on initial investments.

-African development is increasingly driven by a new set of eight targets established by the United Nations called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development.

Chapter Six:

-Moving from west to east are the mountains and valets of the Pacific coastal ranges; than an intermontane-lying between mountains-set of basins, plateaus, and smaller ranges; and finally the great Rocky Mountain range, which rises steeply and imposingly at the western edge of the central lowland.

-So, while the occupation by missionaries and settlers who came to the region in the 16th and 17th centuries is widely known as the period of Europeanization, the process was actually highly selective.

-Even before the American Revolution, however, a process of Americanization had begun as a generation of individuals of European parentage born in the U.S. colonies felt less loyalty and fewer cultural ties to the mother country.

-At first, indentured servants-individuals bound by contract to the service of another for a specific term-from Britain were the primary source of labor on the tobacco and later indigo and cotton plantations.

-What has been most remarkable about Canada’s place in the world economy is that it has been so successful as a staples economy, meaning it was based on natural resources that are unprocessed or only minimally processed before they are exported to other areas where they are manufactured into end products.

-Third-wave immigrants have been frequent victims of hate crimes, acts of violence committed because of prejudice against women; ethnic, racial, and religious minorities; and homosexuals.

-The melting-pot process is another word for assimilation, the process by which peoples of different cultural backgrounds who occupy a common territory achieve sufficient cultural solidarity to sustain a national existence.

-Canadian popular opinion and public policy have advocated something more akin to multiculturalism, the right of all ethnic groups to enjoy and protect their cultural heritage.

-The first evidence of suburbanization-the growth of population along the fringes of large metropolitan areas-can be traced back to the late 18th and early 19th century.

-Old industries and a large population of an established industrial region were dismantled to help fund the creation of new centers of profitability and employment. This process is often referred to as creative destruction, something that is inherent to the dynamics of capitalism.

-The farm crisis-the financial failure and foreclosure of thousands of family farms across the U.S. Midwest-has not ceased, although it no longer gets the media attention it once did.

-The U.S.-Canadian core also encompasses the most populous corridor in the United States that runs from Washington, DC, to Boston, known as Megalopolis, and a similar one that runs from Windsor to Quebec City in Canada, known as Main Street.

-Gentrification is the process whereby the middle class, also known as the gentry, move into areas where real estate values have plummeted because of political and economic disinvestment.

Chapter Seven:

-The high-elevation plateaus and basins that lie within even higher mountains, especially in Bolivia and Peru, at more than 3000 meters in the Andes of Latin America are called the altiplano.

-Altitudinal zonation is a vertical classification of environment and land use according to elevation based mainly on changes in climate and vegetation from lower (warmer) to higher (cooler) elevations.

-El Nino, a periodic warming of sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific off the coast of Peru, results in worldwide changes in climate, including droughts and floods.

-In some years, the ocean off Peru gets colder than normal, producing a contrasting global pattern called La Nina (the periodic abnormal cooling of sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific off the coast of Peru), with floods in northeast Brazil, drought in northern Mexico, and more intense Pacific hurricanes.

-The pristine myth is the erroneous belief that prior to European arrival in 1492 the Americas were mostly wild and untouched by humans and that native peoples lived in harmony with nature.

-The diversity of Latin America’s physical environments has produced a large number of different species, or biodiversity.

-Many tourists are attracted to the colorful birds and verdant plants associated with the ecological region between the tropics of the America’s, also called the neotropics.

-The ecological diversity of Latin America also supports biological prospecting, or bioprospecting, for new medicines and products with commercial uses.

-The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement made by Pope Alexander VI in 1494 to divide the world between Spain and Portugal along a north-south line 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands.

-The Spanish expanded and administered the new Latin American colonies through the viceroyalty system, the largest scale of Spanish colonial administration.

-The search for local labor to work in the mines and fields of the Spanish colonizers was frustrated by one of the most immediate and significant impacts of the European arrival in Latin America, the demographic collapse after about 1500, with the rapid die-off of the indigenous populations of the Americas as a result of diseases introduced by the Europeans to which residents of the Americas had no immunity.

-The introduction of European diseases into the Americas is just one example of the interaction between the ecologies of the two continents that historian Alfred Crosby has called the Columbian Exchange-the interchange of crops, animals, people, and diseases between the Old World of Europe and Africa and the New World of the Americas beginning with the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492.

-Haciendas were established to grow crops such as olives and wheat, mainly for domestic consumption in mines, missions, and cities rather than for export.

-Plantations were large agricultural estates (usually tropical or semitropical and commercial-or export-oriented).

-Labor for the haciendas, plantations, and mines was obtained initially through the institution of encomienda, a system by which groups of indigenous people were entrusted to Spanish colonists who could demand tribute in the form of labor, crops, or goods.

-A dramatic geopolitical step was taken in 1823 when U.S. President James Monroe issued his Monroe Doctrine stating that European military interference in the Western Hemisphere, including the Caribbean and Latin America, would no longer be acceptable, would be considered a threat to the peace and security of the United States, and would be considered a hostile act.

-In Central America oligarchies included large coffee producing landowners of El Salvador and the political elite that managed Guatemala and Honduras in the interests of the multinational fruit companies as so-called banana republics (small tropical countries, often run by dictators, dependent on the export of a few crops such as bananas).

-Known as Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) in Latin America, import substitution derived from critical views of global integration associated with the dependency school of development theory.

-Structural adjustment policies required the removal of subsidies and trade barriers, the privatization of government-owned enterprises such as telephone and oil companies, reductions in the power of unions to demand higher wages, and an overall focus on export expansion.

-The favelas, a Brazilian term for informal settlements that grow up around the urban core, lack good housing and services.

-Many braceros (defined as a guest worker from Mexico given a temporary permit to work as a farm laborer in the United States) never returned to Mexico, and migration continued after the program ended, even as U.S. immigration restrictions tightened.

-The emergence of a new form of Catholic practice, liberation theology, focused on the poor and disadvantaged.

-Political opposition and activism have often taken the form of organized social movements that have also pressured for specific resources and issues, such as housing, water, human rights, or environmental protection.

-Land reform-a change in the way land is held or distributed, such as the division of large private estates into small private farms or communally held properties- was seen as a way to increase productivity and reduce social unrest and was implemented by revolutionary governments and others seeking to reduce the risk of rural uprising.

-A second solution to low productivity and poverty in rural areas was the Green Revolution-the process of agricultural modernization that used a technological package of higher yielding seeds, especially wheat, rice, and corn, that in combination with irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, and farm machinery increased crop yields in several world regions about 1950 to 1980.

-Nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAEs) have become increasingly significant in areas of Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Chile, replacing grain production and traditional exports such as coffee and cotton. Rather than grow these and other crops on large company landholdings, the current strategy is contract farming for multinational corporations such as Del Monte.

-Using imported pesticides on export crops in developing countries, then exporting the contaminated crops to the regions where the pesticides were manufactured, is termed the circle of poison.

-The informal sector, or informal economy, includes economic activities that take place beyond official record and are not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration.

Chapter Eight:

-The Tibetan Plateau, in the southwest, an uplifted massif (a mountainous block of earth’s crust) of about 2.5 million square kilometers.

-The backbone of East Asia is unstable mountains and volcanic ranges that project from the shallow seafloor extending to the island of Taiwan and is part of the Ring of Fire that girdles the Pacific Ocean.

-The so-called Opium War (1839-42) ended with defeat for the Chinese and signing of the Treaty of Nanking, which ceded the island of Hong Kong to the British and allowed European and American traders access to Chinese markets through a series of treaty ports (ports that were opened to foreign trade as a result of pressure from the major powers) that included Amoy (now Xiamen), Canton (now Guangzhou), Ningpo (now Ningbo), Shanghai, and Tsingtao (now Qingdao).

-As in the United States, there was a brief phenomenon of counterurbanization (the net loss of population from cities to smaller towns and rural areas) during the 1970’s, as some businesses sought to escape the congestion and inflated land prices of metropolitan areas and as some people sought out quieter and more traditional settings in which to pursue slower-paced lifestyles.

-The Communist government has also adopted a new system, pinyin, for spelling Chinese words and names using the Latin alphabet of 26 letters.

-Throughout East Asia there is a widespread adherence of feng shui-not a religion but a belief that the physical attributes of places can be analyzed and manipulated in order to improve the flow of cosmic energy, or qi, that binds all living things. Feng shui involves strategies of siting, landscaping, architectural design, and furniture placements to direct energy flows and if often known as geomancy.

-The logic of agglomeration-the clustering together of economic activities because of cost advantages that accrue to individual firms as a result of their location among functionally related activities-and economies of scale has been particularly evident in Japan, and has been strongly encouraged by government policies through MITI.

-Like peripheral regions within older core nations, Japan has experienced the backwash effects of metropolitan developments selective out-migration restricted investment (both public and private), and limited employment opportunities.

-The South Korean government facilitated the development of these export industries by providing incentives, loans, and tax breaks to firms, and by encouraging the growth of giant, interlocking industrial conglomerates called chaebol.

Chapter Nine:

-The Sunda shelf is now flooded by the shallow South China Sea between Borneo and the mainland, but it was exposed during the ice ages, forming a land bridge to Asia.

-During the 19th century, Dutch control over the Indonesian economy tightened with the introduction of the notorious Culture System into Java in 1830.The Culture system required Javanese farmers to devote one-fifth of their land and their labor to export-crop production, especially coffee and sugar, with the profits going to the Dutch government.

-Subscribing to a domino theory, which held that the communist takeover of South Vietnam would lead to the spread of communism throughout Southeast Asia, the United States sent military advisors to South Vietnam in 1962.

-Indonesia’s transmigration program was designed to redistribute population from densely settle Java and the city of Jakarta to reduce civil unrest, increase food production in peripheral regions, and further goals of regional development, national integration, and the spread of the official Indonesian language.

Chapter Ten:

-The Bengal Delta is the product of three major rivers, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra, and the Meghna and their distributaries (river branches that flow away from the main stream, along with a number of lesser rivers and their tributaries that sluice down to the Bay of Bengal, creating a vast web of waterways.

-All of the hills and uplands of the Mountain Rim exert a strong orographic effect, causing moist air from the sea to lift and condense and producing heavy rainfall.

-The Raj, British rule over South Asia, by 1890 extended to the entire region with the exception of present-day Afghanistan and Nepal.

-Caste is a system of kinship groupings, or jati, that are reinforced by language, region, and occupation.

-A particularly cruel type of exploitation of child labor is bonded labor. This kind of bondage occurs when persons needing a loan but having no security to back up the loan pledge their labor, or that of their children, as security for the loan.

Chapter Eleven:

-A large part of the lowlands of Australia is called the Great Artesian Basin because it is underlain by the world’s largest groundwater aquifer, a reservoir of underground water in porous rocks.

-The Pacific islands can be classified into the high volcanic islands and the low coral islands called atolls.

-A marsupial gives birth to a premature offspring that then develops and feeds from nipples in a pouch on the mother’s body.

-The Pacific islands have also developed many different ecosystems and species, with the smaller islands generally less diverse than the larger ones; this pattern is in accordance with the theory of island biogeography, which holds that diversity increases with island size.

-The Aborigine worldview is associated with the Dreamtime, a concept that joins past and future, people and places, in a community that ensures respect for the natural world.

-Ecological imperialism-the way in which European organisms were able to take over the ecosystems of other regions of the world-that led to the endangerment and extinction of numerous other native species through hunting, competition, and habitat destruction.

-Fisheries are often thought of as common property resources; these are managed collectively by a community that has rights to the resource, rather than owned by individuals.

-Ozone depletion-the loss of the protective layer of ozone gas-can result in higher levels of ultraviolet radiation and associated increases in skin cancer, cataracts, and damage to marine organisms.

-In response to the threat of global warming and sea-level rise, the Pacific islands were early members of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), which maintains a sustained voice in international negotiations to reduce the threat of global climate change.

-The British annexed New Zealand in 1840 through the Treaty of Waitangi, a pact with 40 Maori chiefs on the North Island.

-Australia’s immigration policy sought to maintain a European look through the adoption of the White Australia policy after independence in 1901.

-Melanasia is associated with a set of religious movements that have been called cargo cults, in which the dawn of a coming new age was associated with the arrival of goods brought by spiritual brings and foreigners.

-The South Pacific Forum, established in 1971, excludes France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and their colonies and promotes discussion and cooperation on trade, fisheries, and tourism among all of the independent and self-governing states of Oceania.

-In attempts to foster regional markets as global trade liberalizes and restructures around them, Australia and New Zealand create the free trade focused Closer Economic Relations (CER) agreement in 1983, which built on an earlier New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement (NZAFTA).

-The concept of subsistence affluence has been used to describe Pacific island societies: Monetary incomes may be low, but local resources such as coconut and fish provide a reasonable diet, and extended family and reciprocal support prevent serious deprivation.

-A stolen generation of as many as 100,00 Aboriginal children were given a choice and officially acknowledged by the Australian government in a national inquiry in the 1990s.

Chapter Twelve:

-Time-space convergence is the rate at which places move closer together in terms of travel or communications costs.

-The involvement of the state in new global activities, the growth of supranational and regional institutions and organizations, the critical significance of transnational corporations to global capital, and the proliferation of transnational social movements and professional organizations is captured by the term international regime.

Dragonflies and Damselflies

-Like all insects, odonates have three basic body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen.

-The arrangement of the eyes and the space between them is the most important in identifying an individual to a family. The compound eyes contain many thousands of facets. The simple eyes (ocellus) are located on the vertex between the large eyes and are used to detect light. The area directly behind the eyes is called the occiput. The labrum is the upper lip of the mouth and the mandible is the chewing mechanism. The thorax, composed of three sections, anchors the legs and the wings. The section closest to the head is called the pro-thorax and the first pair of legs is attached to it. The other two sections are fused together to make up the pterothorax. This is the section that is responsible for providing the strength to fly. The minute opening on the lateral surface is called a spiracle, which allows air to pass in and out of the odonate’s body.

-The dragonflies of Northeast Ohio (95 species) include the following with these differences: Petaltails and Clubtails have widely spaced eyes, Spiketails have eyes that meet nearly at a point and Darners, Cruisers, Emeralds and Skimmers have eyes that meet at a seam.

-Damselflies are separated into the Broad-winged, Spreadwing, and Pond Damsels (45 species). Their eyes are set far apart. Many species have a unique pattern on the back of the head (postocular spots), often accompanied by a similarly colored occipital bar.

-The stigma (pterostigma) is a large, pigmented cell near the tip of the wing and serves to help maintain balance and direction during flight. The costa is the leading vein of the wing, and the nodus is the obvious indentation in the costa. At rest, dragonflies hold their wings perpendicular to their bodies. The hindwing is always wider than the forewing.

-At rest, most damselflies hold their wings together above their bodies, paralleling their abdomens. The forewings and hindwings are similar in shape and structure. Because they have fewer cross veins in their wings, they are less dynamic in the air than their more robust dragonfly relatives.

-After the courtship rituals, mating and egg-laying, adult odonates leave the eggs on their own in the aquatic nursery sites. Eggs range in size from 0.4 to 2 millimeters and are either oval or elongate in shape depending on the species.

-The eggs require moisture for development to begin. Water temperature is a factor in determining the length of the development period. This process may take a few days or a number of months depending on the species. Often, individual eggs of a single egg mass develop at different rates. Some eggs arevery hardy and can withstand sub-freezing temperatures as they spend the winter inside the plant stems in which they were inserted.

-The time span of the odonate’s aquatic stage may range from one month to five years. A newly hatched dragonfly or damselfly is called a nymph, a naiad or, occasionally, a larva. Since dragons and damsels do not enter a pupal stage of metamorphosis, the term nymph will be used instead of larva.

-Dragonfly and damselfly nymphs breathe by means of gills. In damselfly nymphs, the gills are visible as three petal-shaped, caudal appendages protruding from the end of the abdomen. The gills in dragonflies are located internally, inside the rectal chamber. The expansion and contraction of the rectal walls draws in and expels water through the anus. When threatened, a nymph can forcefully expel water from the rectal chamber, thus propelling itself rapidly forward for a quick escape from danger.

-Nymphs are well-equipped with large, compound eyes for locating their prey by sight. Mosquito larvae are some of their favorite food, but they also prey upon small crustaceans and other aquatic insects as well as each other. They sometimes take prey much larger than themselves, such as tadpoles or small fish. As a nymph grows, they shed their exoskeletons. They may molt up to 15 times (depending on the species) before reaching the final instar, the last nymphal stage before emergence.

-Dragonfly and damselfly nymphs are adapted with a unique lower jaw (labium) that is a long, hinged, extendable appendage, with two moveable lobes and hooks for grasping and holding. It is normally carried in a folded position beneath the head and thorax. When prey is within range, the lower jaw is suddenly thrust forward with the hooks open. Upon contact with the prey, the hooks close as the jaw is retracted, bringing the food in and holding it against the mandibles on the bottom of the head. Depending on the species, the lower jaw may be flat or spoon-shaped.

-Dragonfly and damselfly nymphs rely on one of the two basic feeding (hunting) strategies: stalking or ambushing. Nymphs belonging to the first group move slowly and deliberately toward their quarry until it is in range of their lethal lower jaw. Nymphs belonging to the second group prefer to cover themselves with silt or bury themselves in sand or muck, lying in wait until a hapless victim strays within range.

-Fish, larger predatory aquatic insects (water bugs and predaceous diving beetles), and wading birds (herons, egrets, bitterns, and waterfowl all comprise of predators that eat dragonfly and damselfly nymphs. Newly created wetland mitigation sites, the small shallow headwater streams of rivers and creeks, backyard ponds, and vernal pools are ideal habitats for dragonfly and damselfly nymphs.

-Particularly pond/lake/swamp dwelling dragon and damsel nymphs are quite tolerant of a wide range of water quality. However, some species that dwell in rivers, streams, bogs, and seeps must have well-oxygenated and often cold water.

-The transformation from nymph to adult occurs under the cover of night, when nymphs leave the water, split their aquatic skins and emerge, leaving their exoskeleton behind. The shed exoskeletons (exuviae) are often seen clinging to vegetation or other objects in or near the water. The exuviae often doubles as a residence for spiders and other small creatures that commonly take refuge within. After emergence, dragonflies and damselflies being the next stage of their development as winged adults.

-The use of stereo microscope and multiple odonate nymph keys are often required to identify dragonfly and damselfly species. Sometimes the only sure way to obtain a positive identification is to successfully raise the nymph to adulthood. Sometimes a simple characteristic, such as the body shape of a nymph, or knowledge of the habitat in which it is found, may be enough to narrow the field to a family or genus.

-During the final days of the nymph stage, the adult odonate is already forming within its aquatic skeleton.

-The main purpose of the winged stage is procreation, with distribution and genetic diversification following as a result. The site for emergence of the adult should be out of water and afford the nymph a secure perch to anchor to during the extreme contortions that follow.

-Some species prefer to cling to a floating log or plant material parallel to the water’s surface, some choose a rock or debris along the shoreline or within the creek itself, others may seek a specific angle they can hang from so gravity pulls their bodies away from the exuvia during their transition, some other species transform just above the waterline, while others may venture well away from the water and even climb several feet up into a tree before embarking on their journey to adulthood.

-Most dragonfly species prefer to emerge under the cover of darkness, but often clubtails and many damselfly species will emerge during warmer daylight hours. As soon as the nymph leaves the water, it begins to dry. As moisture from the damp exoskeleton evaporates, it begins to shrink and become brittle. Meanwhile, the nymph, which is now breathing air through its spiracles and trachea, is expanding. This combination causes a split to develop along the top of its thorax. As this gap widens, the soft thorax begins to appear. It emerges from the exoskeleton and rears out of the ruptured skin, doubling back on itself, gradually drawing its long legs out and away from the dried skin. Once the legs are free and somewhat sturdy, the imago begins to free its abdomen by climbing clear of the exuvia, sometimes using it as a ladder to move upward and away from the spend skin.

-Since the shell retains the characteristics of the nymph, the species can often be identified from that. Most exuviae retain long, whitish threads, called tracheal tubes. The trachea, which carries oxygen molecules to cells throughout the body, has a thin lining that is pulled inside out as the adult emerges. These tubes come from the gaping hole in the thorax.

-Gradually, the wings unfurl and expand as hemolymph (the insect equivalent to blood), is pumped through the veins by way of repeated abdominal contractions. Especially larger odonates hang down, parallel to the body, in order to allow their full expansion. Sun and heat assist in the drying process, but high humidity and rain may prolong it. If a heavy downpour should occur at this stage, many individuals are swept back into the water and die. Human activities such as boating and jet ski recreation can destroy an entire group of teneral odonates with their wakes.

-There is a high mortality rate due to bird predation during transformation. As soon as the odonate senses its wings and exoskeleton have hardened enough to support flight, usually within an hour or two, it makes its first flight, seeking better cover. This could be a nearby sanctuary amongst dense grass on the shoreline, farther afield in shrubs, or a hundred yards away, up in a tree. By this time, the odonate’s color patterns are starting to show, but they may not resemble their mature adult patterns. Tenerals have very distinctive wings-the veins are pale and the membranes between them appear soft and pliable.

-The process of maturation may take several days-up to a week for some species. While in transition from teneral to sexually mature adult, they’re referred to as immatures. This time is usually spent feeding voraciously well away from the body of water from whence it came. Once their skin has completely hardened they cannot grow larger, in spite of the amount of prey they consume. However, their body mass can double within the girdle of the exoskeleton.

-Basking is a popular preoccupation, especially on cool mornings. If their flight muscles are too cold, they’re unable to muster the strength to take off. Dragonflies differ from other insects in that each wing is controlled by its own set of muscles. This gives them incredible maneuverability, because each wing works independently of the others. Larger dragonflies, such as Darners, vibrate their wings quickly in order to warm their flight muscles. Smaller species rely on basking and obelisking for thermoregulation. Obelisking, raising the abdomen skyward to minimize the surface area heated by the sun, is used to cool the body on hot days.

-Some dragonflies, Darners in particular, cool their bodies by circulating hemolymph through their abdominal sections while flying. Other species may dive down and forcefully hit the water.

-Most species spend the night in shrubs, trees, or grasses, where they are camouflaged and very difficult to locate. While most species are totally diurnal, some continue to be active at dusk and beyond (Fawn Darners, Shadowdragons, and Vesper Bluets). Some dragons and damsels roost communally for the night (Ebony Jewelwings). Roosting behavior may be advantageous in terms of increased vigilance, both during the night and early morning, when warm-blooded predators, such as birds, begin to forage long before cold-blooded odonates become fully active. Communal roosts may also confuse and/or scare predators. When one is disturbed, they take off en masse, creating noise and confusion.

-Most species will find a spot in the vegetation, usually lower to the ground, perhaps to take advantage of the existing heat differential. This strategy also helps to keep them out of the wind, which may knock them from the roost perch and potentially cause them to be discovered by a nocturnal predator. On especially dewy mornings, odonates are even more vulnerable to predators, since they are weighed down by the dew covering their wings and bodies. Dew further cools their bodies as it evaporates, increasing the time it takes them to warm up, the increased motion from their wing vibrations tends to attract one of their deadliest predators-the praying mantis.

-Dragonflies typically intercept insect prey in flight, sometimes approaching from below, garnering a better view of the intended prey. At the last instant, they rise upward and snatch the unsuspecting victim out of the air, snagging it in the unique basket-like arrangement formed by how they hold their legs. Some dragonflies will eat their prey as they continue to patrol, but most will fly to a perch to consume their meal, concentrating on the bulkiest part of the head, thorax and abdomen.

-Wings are typically discarded during the feeding process, plucked and dropped to the ground below.

-Damselflies are more likely to feed on insects they can pick off of such surfaces as plants, rocks, or the ground. They hover around vegetation, frequently jabbing at any incongruity or bug-like spot on leaves or stems until they make a successful capture. To finish off their meal, they will seek a somewhat safe site. Damselflies are more likely to eat while perching, however they will fly short jaunts carrying prey if they are disturbed.

-Some dragonflies such as Petaltails, Darners, Clubtails and Pondhawks will feed on other dragons as well as damsels. The larger members of the damselfly group will feed on smaller members within the Zygoptera, such as Dancers and Sprites. Deerflies, craneflies, mosquitoes, midges, butterflies, moths, beetles, leafhoppers, aphids-virtually any insect they can safely subdue can become a meal. As eggs, predation/parasitism can come from several species of wasps, one of which is historically reported to swim through the water seeking dragonfly eggs in which to deposit its own eggs. Odonate nymphs are predated by birds (waterfowl, herons, king fishers, and shorebirds), fish, mammals (raccoons), reptiles (turtles), amphibians (newts and salamanders) and aquatic insects (predaceous diving beetles-larvae and adults, giant water bugs-nymphs and adults, and backswimmers).

-Mammals (bats and rodents), birds (including grebes, kestrels, flycatchers, phoebes, shrikes, swallows), reptiles (lizards), amphibians (frogs and toads) and insects (robber flies, spiders, bees, wasps, mantises and ants) have all been noted and observed as odonate predators.

-Carnivorous plants, such as sundew species, can snare an unsuspecting dragon or damsel as they hunt smaller prey in a bog environment. Other odonate enemies can include man (habitat destruction, pollution, road kill, over-collecting), weather (storms, drought, early or late frosts, excessive flooding that can wash away nymphs and/or change stream substrate, numerous cool or rainy days in succession that can lead to starvation) and parasites and parasitoids (larval water mites, trematodes, parasitic wasps, biting gnats and other microorganisms).

-Once the immature stage has passed, the mature adults return to the breeding environment seeking a potential mate. Males of some species quickly stake out a territory, which may be only a few feet of shoreline, and work diligently to chase away male competitors. Others fly repeated passes up and down a stream or river, trolling for females and feeding as they go. Once a candidate mate has been spied, the male takes an aggressive approach, quickly grabbing the female with his legs. He transfers his hold to her prothorax with his clasping terminal appendages before she has much time to react.

-The primary sex organs of both genders are part of the last two abdominal segments, but unlike most animals, they don’t connect directly. All male odonates have secondary sex organs located on the underside of their abdominal segment. These organs consist of a number of components, including the hamules, where the female’s abdomen latches on. Males equip these organs with packages of sperm from their primary genitalia before they encounter a female. The male’s primary sex organ consists of claspers, located at the end of its abdomen, which are uniquely shaped to correspond to an area directly behind the head of the female of their species. The male firmly connects with the female at this point and the two are said to be in tandem.

-Occasionally, one may find a female with the male’s abdomen still attached, but no thorax or head present. This is typically the result of a larger odonate predating the male while he is otherwise engaged and cannot escape quickly. The claspers of the partially devoured male may continue to firmly grasp the female for several hours. Eventually, the claspers relax and the female is free to seek another mate.

-For some dragonfly species (Darners, Skimmers) there is flight in tandem position. Others perform most of their mating sequence on a secluded perch. The receptive female curls the tip of her abdomen up to connect with the male’s hamules. Once attached, the configuration is called a mating wheel. They may remain in this positon for several minutes-rarely more than an hour, while insemination takes place. During this period, males spend all but a few seconds using their scoop-like apparatus to clear out any residual sperm packets from the female’s previous encounters. This behavior ensures that one male’s genes alone are passed on to a female’s progeny.

-Some species remain in tandem until the female has laid the eggs he has fertilized. Others disconnect completely and the female oviposits unattended. In Ebony Jewelwings, the male releases the female after mating, but escorts her while she goes about the business of oviposition. He hover guards, remaining within inches of her to ensure his genes are passed on to another generation.

-Karate guarding is after separating from the female, a male will attack another male that attempts to interfere with his female. Using his abdominal claspers, he grans the interloping male behind the head and keeps him in the tandem configuration until his mate has laid her eggs.

-Another strategy is used by Double-striped Bluets. These damsels usually remain in tandem while the female lays her eggs. She will land on a suitable piece of aquatic vegetation and begin to oviposit right around the water level. She gradually backs farther and farther underwater as she deposits her eggs on the plant. Soon she is totally submerged and continues laying her eggs while the male balances on her neck. Once the male’s thorax reaches the waterline, he usually releases her and flies away, confident she’ll continue the job without interruption. Some females, such as the River Jewelwing, who do not remain in tandem after mating may venture far underwater and will continue laying eggs for 30 minutes or longer before coming back up for air.

-Odonates with lance-like ovipositors cut slits into vegetation and carefully place their eggs within plant tissues. Others oviposit into moss or rotting wood. Some plunge their abdomens into mud and deposit their eggs. Blue meticulously set their eggs one at a time on barely submerged surfaces such as a lilypad. Some odonates, such as the Spreadwings and Darners, oviposit into plant stems that are out of the water. Other species do not lay their eggs on vegetation, but scatter them, seemingly at random, on the water’s surface or even on the ground near water or where water might be likely to collect.

-Clubtails typically do not lay their eggs on vegetation and don’t remain in tandem during oviposition. The female flies back and forth over the water, periodically tapping her abdomen on the surface to release several eggs at a time.

-Dragonflies usually use air currents at higher altitudes. Migrating odonates follow and use optimal weather patterns for their flight times. They appear not to migrate on very windy days, but may choose to move after successive nights with a drop in temperature.

-Species reported as migratory in Northeast Ohio are the Common Green and Swamp Darners, Twelve-spotted Skimmer, Wandering and Spot-winged Gliders, and Black Saddlebags. They possess relatively larger wings as compared to their body size, an adaptation that allows for a stronger, more sustained flight.

-Most adult dragonflies do not die of old age. Rather, they are caught by predators or succumb to harsh weather or starvation. Those that persevere can live six to eight weeks on average. The smaller, more fragile damselflies do well if they live longer than one to two weeks on the wing.

-As odonates near the twilight of adulthood, the wings start to deteriorate and can exhibit tears or missing sections. In some species, the body coloration changes and females can take on a male-like appearance, as in Dot-tailed Whiteface assemblage shown. When they can no longer fly, they become defenseless to ants and scavengers that might not otherwise be equipped to feed on them. For some, their last flight ends with a final plunge into the water, remaining there until they expire or are eaten by other predators.

-After death, their colors quickly fade.

Making Maps

Chapter One:

-Making maps requires that you answer such questions as for example why there are different colored lines on the map.

-A systematic critique of an existing map or the successful making of your own map is accomplished by considering the following issues of the whole map, the map’s data, and the design for the map.

Chapter Two:

-The first thing you need to decide is whether you need a map.

-Sometimes there are more effective ways of making your point: a graph, a drawing, a photo.

-Sometimes it’s better not to map stuff you could easily map. Military sites, sacred indigenous locations, and archaeological sites are often left off of maps.

-Typically land claims by native peoples are accompanied by maps. This is so obviously the place for a map that it seems perverse to question it, but increasingly indigenous peoples have been arguing that maps can’t capture their relationship to the land.

-Knowing the intended audience for your map will help you design it.

-Experts know a lot about the subject of the map. Experts are highly motivated and very interested in the facts the map presents. They expect more substance and expect to engage a complex map.

-Novices know less about the map subject and may not be familiar with the way maps are symbolized. They need a map that is more explanatory. Novices may be less motivated than expert users, but they want the map to help them learn something.

-Consider the final medium of your map before making it. Most maps are made on computer monitors, but the monitor is not the final medium. Rather, it might be a cell phone screen, a piece of paper, a poster, a slide projected on a screen during a presentation, a yard sign, handbill, or protest sign.

-When paper is your final medium, always check design decisions by printing the map (or having your printer create a proof if your map is to be professionally printed).

-Adjust the colors on the monitor so they look best for the final output. The same colors will vary from printer to printer. Reproducing color is often more expensive than black and white.

-Designing maps for final display on a computer must take into account screen resolution and space limits. Design a map so that all type and symbols are visible without magnification. Also avoid maps that require the viewer to scroll around to see the entire map. Use more than one map if you need more detail, or consider web tools that allow you to zoom and pan over a map.

-Maps on smart phones, PDAs, GPS units, and other portable devices pose the same design challenges as on desktop monitors, with further limitation of screen size. Many portable monitors are touch-sensitive, allowing users to pan and zoom, thus overcoming some of the limitations of the small monitor size.

-When projected, white and lighter colors will be more intense, black and darker colors subdued. Computer projectors vary in the amount of light they can project. Some projectors wash out colors. Projected maps must be designed with the viewing distance in mind (find out the size of the room). Always check that the map is legible from the back of the room in which the map will be displayed.

-Posters are similar to projected maps, although usually viewed in well-lighted conditions. Viewers should be able to see key components of the map (such as the title) from afar, then walk up to the map and get more detail. Design the poster, then, so information can be seen both close and at a distance. The size of the poster is limited by the largest printer you can use; always check color and resolution of the printer used to reproduce your poster.

-Working toward a few general styles of documentation that are effective for specific types of commonly produced maps is useful. Documentation of mapped data is vital if the map is to be published.

-Ongoing formative evaluation is as simple as asking yourself whether the map is achieving its goals throughout the process of making the map. Formative evaluation implies that you will re-form the map so it works better, or maybe even dump it.

-Impact evaluation is a range of informal and formal methods for evaluating the finished map. You should begin any map making with a clear sense of who may have the final say on the acceptability of your map, and factor in their wants, needs, and requirements at the beginning of the process.

Chapter Three:

-Maps show us data. Or, sometimes, maps enable us to listen to data.

-Phenomena are all the stuff in the real world. Data are records of observations of phenomena. Maps show us data, not phenomena.

-Continuous phenomena vary gradually, continuously, more or less smoothly. Good examples are atmospheric pressure and temperature. Discrete phenomena change abruptly, like laws from one jurisdiction to another. There is no necessary relationship between phenomena and data, as it’s possible to have many kinds of data for any given phenomenon.

-Data records may be made my machines (like those made by a recording thermometer) or by the map makers themselves. All these are primary data, that is, records of observations made in the environment itself. Maps made from primary data can be considered evidence.

-Secondary data are derived from primary data: aggregations of traffic counts, generalizations of vegetation types.

-Secondary data can be assembled in turn; thus resulting in tertiary data.

-Making maps requires other maps, thinking, and interpretation.

-Qualitative data are differences in kind. Also called nominal data. Shown with symbols, pictographs, or icons; or with differences in color hue (red, green, blue), such colors are different in kind, like the data.

-Quantitative data are differences in amount: includes ordinal, interval, and ratio data. Shown with differences in color value (dark red, red, light red), as such colors suggest more and less, like the data.

-Ordinal: order with no measurable difference between values.

-Interval: measurable difference between values, but not absolute zero.

-Ratio: measurable difference between values, with an absolute zero value.

-Vector data consist of located points (nodes), lines (a connected series of points), and areas (a closed, connected series of points, also called polygons).

-Raster data consist of a grid with values associated with each grid cell. Higher resolution raster files have smaller cells.

-Total numbers are the total number of some phenomenon associated with a point, line, or area.

-Densities are the number of some phenomenon per unit area. Divide the number of people in a country by the square area of the country.

-Averages are adding all values together and dividing by the number of values in the data set. Can be associated with points, lines, and areas.

-Rates are the number of some phenomenon per unit time. May be associated with points, lines, or areas.

-Location is important, but no more so than when it occurred.

-Ways to think about data accuracy: are the facts accurate? Are things where they should be? Does detail vary across the data set? When were the data collected? What are the assumptions behind the data? Are the data from a trustworthy source?

-Metadata are data about data.

-Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of a country to the creators of original works.

-Copyleft refers to an array of licensing options encouraging reuse, reproduction, distribution of, and modifications to creative works within certain parameters.

-Creative works and content neither owned nor controlled by anyone are said to be in the public domain. Public domain may be used by anyone for any purpose without restriction.

Chapter Four:

-Pencils, ink, chalk, paper, and glue are great map-making and thinking tools. So too are the internet mapping sites and GIS software. Choose appropriate tools based on what you need to do.

-Statistical data with location information (place names, postal codes, addresses, etc.) allows the data to be mapped by internet and desktop mapping tools.

-Order paper maps on the net. Such maps are portable and cheap and an excellent source for making new maps, for plotting and thinking about your data, or for inspiration.

-Static digital copies of historical and contemporary maps are available from map libraries, government sources, and commercial sites. Such maps are useful as sources of making maps, reference, and illustration. Static maps are typically in raster format without any geographic coordinates.

-Many internet sites allow you to map locations and routes or to peek at an image of your house. Such sites replace the need to sketch directions by hand or use a road map. The maps are these sites may also be useful as a data source for making maps.

-Cloud-computing map applications are map design and creation on the internet using software and data stored at other internet sites, often charging fees based on the resources used.

-Map mashups combine mappable data sources stored in different places.

-Geographic information systems are a collection of technologies for gathering, processing, analyzing, and mapping geographic information. The analysis of geographic data includes queries, buffers, and overlay.

-Graphic design software offers extensive control over text, color, and all point, line, and area symbols on a map. While not designed with map making in mind, graphic design software can import internet or GIS files, re-create and redesign them, and generate files that can be professionally printed.

Chapter Five:

-Through a process called map projection the curved surface of the earth is flattened.

-Any curved surface gets distorted when you flatten it.

-The surface of the earth tears when you peel and flatten it. Peel a globe and you’ll get globe gores. Most map projections stretch and distort the earth to fill in the tears.

-Distorting circles: Perfect circles of the same size placed at regular intervals on the curved surface of the earth. These circles are then projected along with the earth’s surface. Distortions in the area and shape (angles) of the circles show the location and quality of distortions on the projected map.

-Mappable data are always tied to a grid. Because this grid gets distorted when it’s projected from the curved surface of the earth to the flat surface of the map, the data tied to the grid are distorted too.

-Mollweide projection: oval shape, preserves area. Rounded map shape suggests the round earth. The Mollweide can be recentered to minimize shape distortions of regions of greatest interest.

-Peters (Gall-Peters) projection: This area-preserving projection’s straight grid makes north-south relationships straight forward.-

-Albers equal-area projection: Recentering on an area of interest and selecting part of the earth results in an equal-area map with minimal shape distortion.

-Mercator projection: Good for equatorials maps where the area is small.

-Transverse Mercator: Recentered projection of the Mercator, where the projection is centered sideways along the meridian (or line of longitude) and the scale is true along that meridian.

-Gnomonic projection: A straight line anywhere on a Gnomonic projection is a great circle route, the shortest distance between two points.

-Azimuthal equidistant projection: Planar (azimuthal) map projections preserve directions (azimuths) from their center to all other points. It also preserves distance.

-Goode’s homolosine projection: The projection does not distort areas, and shape distortions in the uninterrupted areas of the map are minimized.

-The Van der Grinten projection: does not preserve shape or area, but minimizes their distortions in all but polar regions. Usually the polar regions are lopped off and the map presented as a rectangle.

-Robison projection: preserves neither area nor shape, but reduces the distortion of both.

-WInkel Tripel projection: Resembles the Robinson, but is has less area exaggeration in the polar regions.

-Map scale affects how much of the earth, and how much detail, can be shown on a map.

-The earth is a geoid, an imperfect 3D object, more akin to an ellipsoid, a squished-down sphere.

-A datum is based on a single common point shared by the geoid and a particular ellipsoid.

-Map coordinates-also known as georeferences-typically consist of a pair of numbers or letters that locate data, tying them to the grid.

-The equator is the origin of latitude. Lines of latitude are called parallels. Parallels run east-west, measuring 90 degrees north and 90 degrees south of the equator. Parallels never converge.

-Greenwich, England is the origin (prime meridian) for longitude. Lines of longitude are called meridians. Meridians run north-south, measuring 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west of the prime meridian. Meridians converge at the poles.

-The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) is a projected coordinate system. UTM, based on the transverse (sideways) Mercator projection, covers most of the earth, which is divided into 60 zones, each 6 degrees wide, running from 84 degrees north to 80 degrees south.

-The State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) is also based on a flat 2D earth. SPCS is used only in the United States, which is divided into over a hundred areas, each with its own coordinate system.

Chapter Six:

-One big picture approach to map design is borrowed from advertising: layout and visual arrangement. The medium is the message. Another approach is Edward Tufte’s graphical excellence.

-Titles should, if possible, include the topic of the map, the geographic area, and temporal information.

-Use text blocks on the map to communicate information about the map content, its broader context, and your goals.

-Map legends vary greatly but should include any map symbol you think may not be familiar to your audience.

-Use a directional indicator if the map is not oriented north and the map is of an area unfamiliar to your intended audience.

-A border, or neatline, drawn around your map and its pieces may draw everything together.

-Maps may include data sources and citations, map maker and date, organization and logs, disclaimers and legal information, map series information, copyright and use issues, and map projection and coordinate system.

-At a smaller scale, data in one area on the map are too dense. At a larger scale, the dense data can be distinguished, but the geographic extent is limited.

-Arrange map pieces so that those that should be seen first are in the upper left of the map-unless, of course, your language reads from right to left.

-The visual center of a map is slightly above the actual center. Try positioning map pieces so that the most important are near the visual center of the map.

-Map pieces vary in weight: some seem heavier, others lighter. Unless you want to suggest a lack of balance to your readers, rearrange your map pieces for better balance.

-Symmetry can be thought of as balance around a central vertical axis.

-Sight-lines are invisible horizontal or vertical lines that touch the top, bottom, or sides of map elements. Minimizing the number of sightlines reduces disjointedness and stabilizes and enhances map layout.

-Symmetrical grids are based on two central axes and top, bottom, and side margins. Asymmetrical grids are more complex, but still depend on the visual center while maintaining top, bottom, and side margins.

Chapter Seven:

-The perceptual effect called figure-ground is behind our ability to see visual depth.

-A successful figure-ground strategy on a map reveals what’s most important first; these elements jump out. Less important elements are less visually noticeable and fall toward the back.

-Figure-ground perception occurs with hearing, taste, smell, touch, and vision.

-To focus attention on the important areas on your map, make them visually distinct from less important areas.

-To focus attention on the most important area on your map, generalize and reduce in less important areas.

-Gray or white (reversed-out) lines and type weaken edges and move less important information to a lower visual level.

-Isolated coarse textures tend to stand out as figure and move to higher visual levels.

-Grids of latitude and longitude can be visually manipulated to focus attention on the most important area of your map by appearing to run behind the most important parts.

-Map elements with simple closed shapes tend to be seen as figure. However, complex shapes also draw attention and tend toward figure. Larger symbols tend toward stronger figure.

-Closed objects tend to jump out from the ground.

-Objects close together tend to stand out as figure.

-Simple objects tend to form stronger figure.

-Objects with the same orientation, heading in the same direction, tend to form figure.

Objects with familiar, recognizable shapes jump out as figure.

-Strong figure is created by intense colors, reds, and highly contrasting hues (yellow-black, white-blue). Complementary hues (red-green, blue-orange) create ambiguous figure-ground.

-A design guide shows ways you can visually manipulate point, line, and area symbols on a map to achieve visual depth.

Chapter Eight:

-Transformation from large to small scale requires generalization and classification.

-Selection reduces clutter and enhances the reader’s ability to focus on what is more important on a map.

-A dimension change in a feature is often necessary when changing scale and useful for removing unnecessary detail from a map.

-Simplification can enhance visibility, reduce clutter, and, with digital data, reduce the size of the digital map file.

-Smoothing map features reduces their angularity.

-Displacement moves vital map features, that visually interfere with one another apart.

-Enhancement of map features occurs when the map maker knows enough about the feature being mapped to add details that aid in understanding.

-In general, features in the same class should be more similar than dissimilar; features in different classes should be more dissimilar than similar.

-Be aware that qualitative data on maps has been classified. Determine the criteria for classification. A map may classify data based upon criteria suitable for one purpose but not necessarily for others.

-With quantitative data aggregated in areas, first decide the number of classes. Few classes often result in distinct patterns; more classes often result in complex patterns. Which option is best depends on why you are making the map.

-In addition to choosing the number of classes, you must decide where to place boundaries between the classes. Classification schemes set these boundaries.

-If a particular classification scheme seems to violate the basic classification rule, then consider a different scheme.

-To create an unclassified scheme assign a unique visual shade to every unique data value.

-Quantile schemes place the same number of data values in each class.

-Equal-interval schemes place boundaries between classes at regular (equal) intervals.

-Natural-breaks schemes minimize differences between values within classes and maximize differences between values in different classes.

-Class boundaries can be set by external criteria.

-Looking at a number of classification schemes brings forth geographic facts, both facts that are variously emphasized and those that are preserved through every variation.

Chapter Nine:

-Map symbols, or signs, have two parts. The first is conceptual. The second is a graphic mark.

-Some map symbols look like particular data or concepts.

-Some map symbols intuitively suggest general kinds of data.

-Of course, all map symbols are symbols by convention. But this is particularly clear when symbols reveal cultural bias or don’t resemble what they symbolize.

-All symbols work by being different from other symbols. But some symbols can be developed from others by using a process of visual differentiation.

-Isotype consists of a series of universally communicable symbols. Such standards aim to reduce ambiguity through a shared set of common map symbols.

-Old maps reveal startling unconventional map symbols, often conventions of the past.

-One approach to symbolizing your data, the visual variables, guides map symbolization by considering the characteristics of your data.

-Most mappable data are at points (zero dimension), lines (one dimension), or in areas (two dimensions).

-Consider next whether your data vary in either quality (differences in kind) or quantity (differences in amount).

-If your data is qualitative, choose a visual variable that suggests qualitative differences, such as shape or color hue. If your data are quantitative, choose a visual variable that suggests quantitative differences, such as size or color value. Some visual variables can be manipulated to suggest either qualitative or quantitative differences, such as texture.

-Map symbols with different shapes imply differences in quality.

-Map symbols with different sizes imply differences in quantity.

-Color hue refers to different colors such as red and green. Symbols with different hues readily imply differences in quality.

-Color value refers to different shades of one hue, such as a dark and light red. Map symbols with different values readily imply differences in quantity.

-Color intensity (or saturation) is a subtle visual variable that is best used to show subtle data variations, such as binary (yes or no) data that are not really qualitative or quantitative.

-Texture (pattern) can imply both qualitative and quantitative differences.

-One of the most common types of mappable data is associated with geographic areas: one data value is associated with each geographic area.

-A choropleth map varies the shading of each area in tandem with the data value.

-A graduated symbol map varies the size of a symbol centered on each area in tandem with the data value associated with it.

-A dot map varies the number of dots in each area in tandem with the data value associated with it.

-The surface map creates an abstract surface from the single data value for each area.

-The cartogram is a variant of the graduated symbol map. Cartograms vary the size of geographic areas (rather than symbols) based on the single data value associated with the area.

Chapter Ten:

-Variations in type anatomy shape its look: its overall form (typeface, font), the way the strokes on letters finish (serifs), the size of the main body of lowercase letters (x-height), the parts that stick up above and below the main body (ascenders, descenders), and the size of the type.

-Different typefaces can be used to suggest qualitative aspects of data and to shape the overall feel of your map.

-Larger sizes imply more importance or greater quantity, smaller sizes less importance or less quantity.

-Bold type implies more importance or greater quantity, standard or light type less importance or less quantity.

-Type form variations can suggest qualities (italics, color hue), order (color value), and both (spacing, case).

-When labeling point symbols on a map, start at the center of the map and work outward.

-Show characteristics of the labeled location with type placement.

-Curve and space type to fit areas. Ensure that the area and the label are clearly associated.

-Kerning adjusts the spacing between particular pairs of letters to make them look uniform and less distracting.

-Letterspacing, or tracking, changes the spacing between all letters.

-Line spacing, or leading, adjusts spacing between lines of text.

Chapter Eleven:

-Color hue suggests qualitative differences, color value ordered, quantitative differences.

-The colors on a map vary as the light source varies. The same colors will look different when viewing a map.

-The colors on a map vary as the surface the map is displayed on varies. The same colors will look different when viewing a map.

-Hue is the name for our human experience of particular electromagnetic energy wavelengths.

-Value is the perceived lightness or darkness of a hue.

-Intensity describes the purity of a hue.

-Predefined color specification systems are like paint chips from the paint store. Thousands of predefined colors are specified by names or codes.

-Perceptual color specification systems, such as Munsell, are based on human perceptual abilities.

-Process color specification systems use three or four colors to create all other colors. Printed colors typically use the subtractive primaries and rely on reflected light.

-Computer monitors also use three colors to create all other colors. Monitor colors typically create color with the additive primaries and rely on emitted light.

-The appearance of any color on a map depends on surrounding colors.

-Different colors can also look the same, depending on their background.

-If the background of a map has varying colors, check that symbols that are supposed to be the same color look the same everywhere on the map.

-If you intend for your map to distinguish specific data from other data, use colors that have a high visual difference. Less visual difference is useful if your goal is to suggest less difference between data.

-The appearance of color on a map varies, depending on the particular eye-brain system looking at it.

-Color has symbolic connotations.





Digital Portfolio

M J 13: Schuurman Ch.1

W J 15: Summaries of Exhibit B and Project Thoughts

W J 15: Introduction & Terminology and Conceptual Frameworks for Spatial Analysis

W J 22: Mitchell Ch. 1

W J 29: Mitchell Ch. 2: Mapping Where Things Are (Presented by Me)

W J 29: Mitchell Ch. 3: Mapping the Most and Least (Done by Mary Nilan)

M F 3: Putting People in the Map

M F 3: Global urban land-use trends and climate impacts

M F 10: Mitchell Ch. 4

M F 10: Mitchell Ch. 5

M F 10: Mitchell Ch. 6

M F 10: Mitchell Ch. 7

W F 12: Schuurman Ch. 2

W F 12: Schuurman Ch. 3

W F 12: Schuurman Ch. 4

W F 12: Schuurman Ch. 5

M F 17: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 1

M F 17: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 2

W F 19: Delaware Data Inventory

W F 19:  Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 3

W F 19: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 4

W F 19: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 5

W F 19: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 6

W F 19: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 7

W F 19: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 8

 W F 19: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 9

M F 24: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 10

M F 24: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 11

M F 24: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 12

M F 24: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 13

M F 24: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 14

M F 24: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 15

W F 26: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 16

W F 26: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 17

W F 26: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 18

W F 26: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 19

W F 26: Getting to Know ArcGIS Ch. 20

Project Blog



Getting To Know ArcGIS Ch. 20

-As discussed in chapter 1, the first thing you you should understand about a raster is that it is composed of pixels, instead of discrete x,y coordinates, that define geographic entities. The pixels form a mesh of grid cells, which are used to record and define geographic phenomena on the surface of the Earth.

-A surface can be discrete data, meaning is shows distinct and discernable regions on a map, such as soil types or land cover, or it can be continuous data, meaning there are smooth transitions between variations in the range of data.

-Map algebra is a language that combines GIS layers-is fundamental to raster analysis.

-ArcGIS Spatial Analyst performs raster analysis using Esri grids. In this context, a grid is a raster data storage format native to Esri and consists of two types: integer and floating point.

-Although ever cell in a grid has a value assigned to it, cells without an actual value can be designated as NoData cells.

-Examples of the types of spatial analysis you can perform with ArcGIS Spatial Analyst include terrain analysis, surface and density modeling, suitability modeling, and image classification.

Getting To Know ArcGIS Ch. 19

-Problem solving in GIS involves spatial analysis and using a wide range of geoprocessing and analysis tools to visualize, generalize, and theorize about geographic data.

-Through the aid of ArcMap and ModelBuilder, you can create visual analysis models by piecing together inputs, processes, and outputs.

-A buffer is an area drawn at a uniform distance around a feature-whether a point, a line, or a polygon.

-Map overlays (union and intersect) identify overlaps between features in two layers and create a dataset in which the lines of overlap define new features. In a union overlay, nonoverlapping areas are included in the output dataset. In an intersect overlay, only the overlapping geometry is preserved, and features have attributes from both input layers.

-Slivers are small polygons that are created because of uneven or unequal boundaries.

Getting To Know ArcGIS Ch. 18

-GIS is widely used in many industries, from conservation to emergency response, to answer questions and make educated decisions.

-When you perform an operation on spatial data that creates a new dataset (often slightly modified version of the original), you are geoprocessing data.

-Typical analysis workflow includes the following steps: 1. Frame the problem as a question. 2. Choose the appropriate data. 3. Choose an appropriate analysis method. 4. Organize and process the data. 5. Review, display and share the results.